1 Considered to be one of the fundamental doctrines in the list of elementary teachings (Hebrews 6:1-2).

2 The two basic categories are from; Geisler, N., In Defense of the Resurrection, p 121

3 Ladd, I Believe in the Resurrection of Jesus, 1975. Pages 96, 100, 101, 115, 127, and 129.

For example, on p 98, Ladd wrote, "These words need not be taken to be a description of the actual material composition of Jesus' body, but are intended as proof of Jesus' corporeity".

4 Lindsell, The Battle for the Bible, 1978. pages 114-115, and Lindsell, The Bible In the Balance, 1979 covers one "side" of the debate and Marsden, Reforming Fundamentalism, covers the "other" side. See also Fuller Seminary Statement of Faith, on the Internet at: (11/97)

5 Harris, Raised Immortal, 1983.

6 For instance - Geisler, The Battle for the Resurrection, 1989

7 Harris, From Grave to Glory, 1990

8 Smith, Chuck, Tapes 4743, 5263, 5266, 5702, 8150, 8156, 8661, and 8667. The Word For Today. Tapes are generally undated, but the 5000 series tapes are ca. 1979 and the 8000 series tapes are ca. 1997. The 5000 series and 8000 series tapes are on the Internet on the CC site at; , in Real Audio format.

9 Tape is on the Internet at

10 Smith, Chuck, Tape 4743. The Word For Today, undated.

11 documents this attempt.

12 Smith, Therefore Stand, page 363

13 Craig, Reasonable Faith, page 287

14 Wilkins, Jesus Under Fire, Section by W. L. Craig, page 157

15 Hodge, Systematic Theology. Volume III, Soteriology, 775

16 Schaff, History of the Christian Church, Volume III, Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity A. D. 311-600, page 451.

17 Schep, The Nature of the Resurrection Body, page 11

18 pneumatikos - spiritual body. For a detailed coverage of this point, see Schep, The Nature of the Resurrection Body which clearly defends the literalistic view. The adjectival usage is of key importance.

19 Elwell, Dictionary of Evangelical Theology, "Apostles Creed" entry.

20 Ibid

21 Ibid

22 The Didache 16,6-7. Found on the Internet at: (11/97)

23 1 Clement 24, Early Church Fathers, Volume 1

24 Ibid.

25 Ibid.

26 1 Clement 25.

27 1 Clement 26.

28 Exo 9:16 And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to show in thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.

29 Psa 3:5 I laid me down and slept; I awaked; for the LORD sustained me.

30 Direct quote is hard to classify. This appears to be a compilation of other parts of the book of Job, or perhaps a textual variant.

31 Job 19:25 -27 For I know that my redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth: And though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God: Whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another; though my reins be consumed within me.

32 1 Clement 27

33 Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians Chapter 7

34 Mat 20:22-23 But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him, We are able. And he saith unto them, Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with: but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father.

35 Epistle of the Church at Smyrna Concerning the Martyrdon of the Holy Polycarp, Chapter 14, The Prayer of Polycarp.

36 Luke 24:39 Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.

37 Acts 10:41 Not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, even to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead.

38 The Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyraeans, Chapter 3

39 Luke 24:39 Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.

40 John 20:27 Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing.

41 John 20:28 And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God.

42 Acts 10:41 Not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, even to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead.

43 It may have been in fulfillment of the saying of Jesus - Mat 26:29 But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom.

44 Acts 1:11 Which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.

45 Zec 12:10 And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn.

46 No physical part.

47 Ignatius' Epistle to the Smyrnaea, Chapter 7

48 Ibid

49 The Epistle of Barnabas, Chapter 5

50 The Epistle of Barnabas, Chapter 21

51 Justin - 2 Apology 81.

52 Rev 20:4 And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.

53 Chapter 27 - Plato's knowledge of the Judgement

54 Fragments of the Lost Work of Justin on the Resurrection, Chapters 2-10

55 Ibid, chapter 2

56 Ibid, chapter 2

57 Ibid, chapter 2

58 Ibid, chapter 2

59 Ibid, chapter 3

60 Ibid, chapter 4

61 Ibid, chapter 5

62 Ibid, chapter 5

63 Ibid, chapter 6

64 Ibid, chapter 7

65 Ibid, chapter 8

66 Ibid, chapter 8

67 Ibid, chapter 8

68 Ibid, chapter 8

69 Ibid, chapter 9

70 Ibid, chapter 10

71 Irenaeus Against Heresies, Book II, chapter 29, found in Early Church Fathers, Volume 1.

72 Ibid, book IV; 18, 5.

73 Ibid, Book V, Chapter 3, 3.

74 Ibid, Book V, Chapter 5.

75 Ibid, Book V, Chapter 6.

76 Ibid, Book V, Chapter 7.

77 Ibid, Book V, Chapter 13.

78 Ibid, Book V, Chapter 13, 2.

79 Sider, The Pauline Conception of the Resurrection Body in 1 Corinthians XV. 35-54, NTS, page 436.

80 Ibid, Book V, Chapters 13-14.

81 Ibid, Book V, Chapter 14, 2.

82 Ibid, Book V, Chapter 15, 4.

83 Ibid, Book V, Chapter 15.

84 Ibid, Book V, Chapter 31.

85 Ibd, Book V, Chapter 32.

86 Ibid, Book V, Chapter 33.

87 Ibid, Book V, Chapter 34.

88 Ibid, Book V, Chapter 34.

89 Maas, A.J. Ps. Ixxxviii, sermon ii, n. 5, as quoted in the Catholic Encyclopedia, on the Internet at: (12/97)

90 Berkof, The History of Christian Doctrines, p 265. Berkhof states that Origen described the resurrrection body as spiritual and that the two Gregories, Chrysostom, and Synesius agreed with Origen on the nature of the resurrection body.

91 Geisler, In Defense of the Resurrection, pages 148-155

92 Bynum, The Resurrection of the Body, page 87-88

93 A complete and detailed analysis is beyond the scope of this paper and only a few points of Origen's view of the resurrection will be engaged here. This would make an excellent paper topic all by itself.

94 Geisler, In Defense of the Resurrection, page 148

95 Origin Contra Celsus, On the Internet at: (11/97)

96 Ibid, chapter 16

97 Ibid, chapter 62

98 Origen, De Principiis, Book 2, chapter 10, from the Early Church Fathers, Volume 4.

99 Ibid 10, 1.

100 1 Cor 15:44 ":It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body."

101 Ibid, Origen, 10,1.

102 Ibid, 10,1

103 Ibid, 10,3.